1.        Pengertian  Musyarakah (partnership, project financing participation)

Musyarakah adalah akad kerja sama antara dua pihak atau lebih untuk suatu usaha tertentu di mana setiap pihak memberikan kontribusi dana (amal/axpertise) dengan kesepakatan bahwa keuntungan dan resiko (kerugian) akan ditanggung bersama sesuai dengan kesepakatan.[i]

Dalam hal kerugian, para ulama sepakat bahwa kerugian akan ditanggung bersama sesuai dengan proporsi penyertaan modal masing-masing.[ii]

Musyarakah juga merupakan satu skim fiqih yang fleksibel penggunaannya, seperti di Iran misalnya, skim ini digunakan untuk pembiayaan sektor produksi, jasa, dan belakangan untuk kepemilikan rumah. Dalam khazanah ilmu fiqh, musyarakah melingkupi jenis-jenis transaksi yang sangat luas.[iii]

  1.        Landasan Musyarakah

Islam menyukai kerja sama dalam berbagai bentuk usaha kebajikan dan sebaliknya menolak usaha-usaha yang bisa mendatangkan kemudharatan untuk diri sendiri dan orang banyak oleh karenanya kegiatan musyarakah dibolehkan oleh syariat Islam seperti Firman Allah SWT dalam beberapa surat, “….Tetapi jika saudara seibu itu lebih dari seorang maka mereka bersekutu dalam yang sepertiga itu…” (QS. An-Nisa: (12), dan dalam surat lainnya “Dan sesungguhnya kebanyakan dari orang-orang yang berserikat itu sebagian mereka berbuat zalim kepada sebagian yang lain kecuali orang yang beriman & mengerjakan amal saleh.” (QS Shad [38]: 24).

Kedua ayat di atas menjelaskan bahwa musyarakah (persekutuan) tersebut dibenarkan oleh syariat dan musyarakah yang benar adalah musyarakah yang didasari pada keimanan dan dikerjakan secara ikhlas (amal saleh).

Dari  Abu Huraira RA, Rasulullah SAW bersabda, “Sesungguhnya Allah Azza wa Jalla berfirman,“Aku pihak ketiga dari dua orang yang berserikat (berkongsi) selama salah satunya tidak mengkhianati lainnya apabila ia mengkhianatinya, maka aku keluar dari serikat (perkongsian) itu”. (HR. Abu Dawud dan Hakim). Berdasarkan hadits Rasulullah SAW di atas jelas Islam telah menghalalkan dan memberkahi perkongsian (musyarakah) selama di dalamnya tidak terdapat unsur tipu-menipu (saling mengkhianati).

Sedangkan menurut ijma’, umat Islam sepakat bahwa syirkah dibolehkan. Hanya saja, mereka berbeda pendapat tentang jenisnya.[iv]

  1.        Rukun dan Syarat Musyarakah

Menurut jumhur ulama rukun dari akad musyarakah yang harus dipenuhi dalam transaksi adalah pelaku akad (mitra usaha), objek akad (modal, kerja, dan keuntungan), dan shighah (ijab dan qabul)[v].

Sedangkan syarat-syarat syirkah menurut Hanafiyah terbagi menjadi empat bagian, yaitu:

  1.    Syarat yang berkaitan dengan semua bentuk syirkah baik harta, maupun lainnya. Pertama, benda yang diakadkan harus berupa benda yang dapat diterima sebagai perwakilan. Kedua, berkaitan dengan keuntungan, pembagiannya harus jelas dan disepakati oleh kedua belah pihak.
  2.    Syarat yang terkait dengan harta (mal). Pertama, modal yang dijadikan objek akad syirkah adalah dari alat pembayaran yang sah (nuqud). Kedua, adanya pokok harta (modal) ketika akad berlangsung baik jumlahnya sama atau berbeda.
  3.    Syarat yang terkait dengan syirkah mufawadhah yaitu, modal pokok harus sama, orang yang bersyirkah yaitu ahli kafalah, dan objek akad yang disyaratkan syirkah umum, yaitu semua macam jual-beli atau perdagangan.
  4.    Syarat yang berkaitan dengan syirkah ‘inan sama dengan syarat-syarat syirkah mufawadhah.

Malikiyah menambahkan bahwa orang yang melakukan akad syirkah disyaratkan merdeka, baligh, dan pintar.[vi]

  1.        Pembagian Syirkah
  1.    Syirkah Ibahah, yaitu suatu bentuk perkongsian yang membolehkan kaum muslimin untuk mengambil manfaat secara bersama-sama terhadap suatu objek yang halal ain-nya dan diketahui bahwa objek tersebut sangat diperlukan manfa’atnya untuk memenuhi hajat hidup. Para ulama sepakat yang termasuk dalam syirkah ini adalah memiliki bersama ke atas air, udara dan api, seperti Sabda Rasulullah SAW: “Dari Abi Kharasy dari sahabat Rasulullah SAW bahwa kaum muslimin itu berkongsi pada tiga    hal yaitu: udara, air dan api”. (HR. Ahmad dan Abu Daud)
  2.    Syirkah Milki ialah perkongsian yang terjadi antara dua orang atau lebih atas sesuatu sebab dari sebab-sebab pemilikan seperti pembelian, penerimaan sesuatu pemberian (hibah), penerimaan wasiat, warisan atau percampuran harta mereka dalam bentuk yang tidak dapat dipisahkan.
  3.    Syirkah ‘Uqud adalah perkongsian yang di bentuk berdasarkan aqad antara dua orang atau lebih terhadap mudah dan keuntungan dengan syarat-syarat yang disepakati bersama.[vii]

Dari ketiga jenis syirkah di atas, hanya ada satu syirkah yang sangat populer dan berlaku secara aktif dalam dunia usaha yaitu syirkah ‘uqud.

  1.        Jenis Musyarakah Akad (Syirkah ‘Uqud)

Musyarakah akad tercipta dengan kesepakatan dua orang atau lebih setuju bahwa tiap orang dari mereka memberikan modal musyarakah dan sepakat berbagi keuntungan dan kerugian. Musyarakah akad dibagi menjadi:

  1.    Syirkah ‘Inan (شركة العنان)

       Akad kerja sama antara dua pihak atau lebih, masing-masing memberikan kontribusi dana dan berpartisipasi dalam kerja. Porsi dana dan bobot partisipasi dalam kerja tidak harus sama, bahkan memungkinkan hanya salah satu pihak yang aktif mengelola yang ditunjuk oleh partner lainnya. Keuntungan atau kerugian dibagi menurut kesepakatan bersama.[viii] Para ulama sepakat membolehkan bentuk syirkah ini.[ix]

  1.    Syirkah Mufawadhah (شركة المفاوضة)

       Masing-masing pihak memberikan kontribusi dana dalam porsi yang sama dan berpartisipasi dalam kerja dengan bobot yang sama pula. Untung dan rugi harus dibagi secara sama pula.[x] Mazhab Hanafi dan Maliki membolehkan syirkah yang seperti ini, sementara mazhab Syafi’i dan Hambali melarangnya karena secara realita sangat sukar terjadi persamaan pada semua unsurnya.[xi]

  1.    Syirkah A’mal (  شركة الأعمال)

     Kerja sama antara dua pihak atau lebih yang memiliki profesi dan keahlian tertentu, untuk menerima serta melaksanakan suatu pekerjaan secara bersama dan berbagi keuntungan dari hasil yang diperoleh.[xii] Jumhur ulama, yaitu mazhab Hanafi, Maliki dan Hambali membolehkan, sementara mazhab Syafi’i melarangnya karena mazhab ini hanya membolehkan syirkah modal dan tidak boleh syirkah kerja.[xiii]

  1.    Syirkah Wujuh (شركة الوجوه)

                   Kerja sama tanpa setoran modal uang. Modal yang digunakan hanyalah nama baik yang dimiliki, terutama karena kepribadian dan  kejujuran masing-masing dalam berniaga (perkongsian atas dasar kepercayaan).[xiv] Mazhab Hanafi dan mazhab Hambali membolehkan syirkah seperti ini, sedangkan mazhab Maliki dan mazhab Syafi’i melarangnya.[xv]

Dari ke empat jenis syirkah ‘uqud di atas hanya syirkah ‘inan saja yang relevan dengan produk bank-bank Islam serta di setujui oleh empat mazhab besar Islam.

  1. Bentuk-Bentuk Musyarakah

Dalam prakteknya ada dua bentuk fundamental musyarakah berdasarkan perubahan porsi dana para mitra, yaitu:

  1. Musyarakah permanen, yaitu musyarakah dengan ketentuan bagian dana setiap mitra bersifat tetap hingga akhir masa akad.
  2. Musyarakah menurun (musyarakah Mutanaqisah), yaitu musyarakah dengan ketentuan bagian dana salah satu mitra akan dialihkan bertahap kepada mitra lainnya, sehingga bagian dananya akan menurun dan pada akhir masa akad mitra lain tersebut akan menjadi pemilik penuh usaha itu.[xvi]
  1.       Berakhirnya Akad Musyarakah

Perkara yang membatalkan syirkah terbagi atas dua hal sebagai berikut:

  1.    Pembatalan syirkah secara umum, yaitu pembatalan dari salah seorang yang bersekutu, meninggalnya salah seorang syarik, salah seorang syarik murtad dan gila.
  2.    Pembatalan syirkah secara khusus
  1.     Harta syirkah rusak sebelum dibelanjakan. Hal ini terjadi pada syirkah amwal karena yang menjadi barang transaksi adalah harta.
  2.     Tidak ada kesamaan modal dalam syirkah mufawadhah pada awal transaksi, perkongsian batal sebab hal itu merupakan bagian dari syarat transaksi mufawadhah.[xvii]
  1.        Aplikasi Musyarakah Di Sektor Perbankan Sebagai Solusi Islam untuk Menghapus Praktik Ribawi di Bank

Bunga uang merupakan bagian dari teori riba. Bunga bank termasuk ke dalam riba nasi’ah (riba karena perpanjangan waktu).[xviii] MUI secara tegas telah menyatakan bahwa praktik pembungaan itu “hukumnya adalah haram, baik dilakukan oleh Bank, Koperasi, Pasar Modal, Pegadaian dan Lembaga Keuangan lainnya maupun dilakukan oleh individu”.[xix]

Allah SWT berfirman, “Apa yang kamu berikan (pinjaman) dalam bentuk  riba agar harta manusia bertambah, maka hal itu tidak bertambah di sisi Allah” (Qs. Ar-Ruum: (39). Ayat ini jelas menyampaikan pesan moral, bahwa pinjaman (kredit) dengan sistem bunga tidak akan membuat ekonomi masyarakat tumbuh secara agregat dan adil.

Dalam memperlancar roda perekonomian, perangkat bunga jelas memiliki peran penting, oleh karena itu Islam memberikan solusi pemecahan untuk mengembangkan peranan bank tetapi bebas dari sifat-sifat kotor dan negatifnya, salah satunya dengan cara musyarakah/syirkah (persekutuan), dalam musyarakah pihak bank dan pihak penguasa sama-sama mempunyai andil (saham) pada usaha patungan, mereka mengelola usaha patungan dan menanggung untung ruginya bersama atas dasar perjanjian Profit and Loss Sharing.[xx] Dan pasti bebas bunga.

Seperti yang sudah diketahui bahwa bank konvensional membiayai sebuah proyek melalui pinjaman berbunga. Hubungan bank dengan risiko proyek dapat dipastikan tidak ada, artinya para peminjam tetap berkewajiban membayarkan pokok pinjaman dan bunganya kepada pihak bank tanpa melihat apakah proyek yang dibiayai itu rugi atau untung, sedangkan di dalam akad musyarakah semua tanggungjawab, keuntungan dan kerugian dibagi secara proporsional kepada masing-masing pihak yang ber-musyarakah. Pada bank konvensional nasabahlah yang memperoleh semua keuntungan dan menanggung semua kerugian proyek.[xxi] Terlihat jelas bahwa sistem perbankan konvensional ini sangat eksploitatif dan tidak dapat diterima oleh syariah.

Berdasarkan penjelasan tersebut maka bisa dikatakan pembiayaan dengan menggunakan akad musyarakah pada bank Islam adalah pembiayaan bank Islam yang bersifat riil dan menyentuh kehidupan ekonomi secara langsung. Di samping menanamkan sahamnya pada proyek-proyek, bank Islam juga melakukan praktik bisnis yang Insya Allah bebas dari prinsip kotor dan di berkahi Allah SWT.

  1.           Musyarakah: Salah Satu Langkah Mencapai Falah

Di dalam Islam manusia tidak hanya dituntut untuk menghasilkan harta (berorientasi pada profit semata), tetapi juga pada falah yaitu kesejahteraan hakiki secara material dan spiritual (dunia dan akhirat). Modal utama seorang manusia adalah ‘Islam’ sehingga segala aktivitas (termasuk bermuamalah seperti ber-musyarakah) yang dilakukan dengan berdasarkan ketentuan syari’ah pastilah di hitung sebagai bentuk ibadah dan menambah berkah pahala di sisi-Nya.

Islam mensyari’atkan syirkah sesuai dengan maqashid asy-syari’ah itu sendiri, yaitu salah satunya adalah memelihara harta dengan terjamin kehalalan dan pengembangan harta itu sendiri serta juga memenuhi nilai-nilai kebersamaan antar ummat. Islam mengatur cara untuk menghasilkan dan membelanjakan  harta. Seorang manusia wajib untuk mencari rezeki untuk menutupi keperluan hidupnya beserta tanggungannya dan bermuamalah (termasuk di dalamnya musyarakah) merupakan salah satu cara ke arah tersebut. Dengan musyarakah, manusia tidak hanya bisa menghasilkan dan menambah harta kekayaan, tetapi juga menambah berkah pahala  karena hidup dengan cara yang halal dan baik.

Allah SWT berfirman, “Dan belanjakanlah (harta bendamu) di jalan Allah, dan janganlah kamu menjatuhkan dirimu sendiri ke dalam kebinasaan, dan berbuat baiklah, karena sesungguhnya Allah menyukai orang-orang yang berbuat baik”. (Qs. Al-Baqarah (2): (195).

 

Oleh: Nurul Azmi

(Mahasiswi Fakultas Ekonomi & Bisnis Unsyiah jurusan Ekonomi Islam)

 


[i]  Veithzal Rivai. H, Andria Permata Veithzal. 2008. Islamic Financial Management. Jakarta : PT Raja Grafindo, hal. 121.

[ii]  Ascarya. 2011. Akad dan Produk Bank Syariah. Cetakan Ketiga. Jakarta: PT. RajaGrafindo Persada, hal. 51

[iii] Adiwarman Karim Aswar. 2001. Ekonomi Islam Suatu Kajian Kontemporer. Cetakan Pertama, Jakarta : Gema Insani, hal. 81.

[iv] Syafe’i Rachmat. Fiqih Muamalah. 2001. Bandung : Pustaka Setia, hal. 186.

[v] Ascarya. Opcit, hal. 52.

[vi] Rahman Ghazaly, Abdul, Ghufron Ihsan, Sapiudin Sidiq. 2010. Fiqh Muamalat. Cetakan Pertama. Jakarta: Kencana, hal. 129-130.

[vii] Baihaqi A. Shamad, 2007. Konsepsi Syirkah dalam Islam Perbandingan Antar Mazhab. Cetakan Pertama. Banda Aceh : Yayasan Pena, hal. 62-63.

[viii] Veithzal rivai. H, Andria Permata veithzal. Opcit, hal. 121.

[ix] Ascarya. Opcit, hal. 50.

[x] Veithzal rivai. H, Andria Permata veithzal. Opcit, hal. 121.

[xi] Ascarya. Opcit, hal. 50.

[xii] Veithzal rivai. H, Andria Permata veithzal. Opcit, hal. 121.

[xiii] Ascarya. Opcit, hal. 50.

[xiv] Veithzal rivai. H, Andria Permata veithzal. Opcit, hal. 121.

[xv] Ascarya. Opcit, hal. 50.

[xvi] Yaya, Rizal, Aji Erlangga Martawireja, Ahim Abdurahim. Akuntansi Perbankan Syariah Teori dan Praktik Kontemprer. 2014. Cetakan Kedua. Jakarta : Salemba Empat, hal. 135.

[xvii] Syafe’i Rachmat. Opcit, hal. 201.

[xviii] Adiwarman Karim Aswar. Opcit, hal. 73-74.

[xix] Zamir iqbal dan Abbas Mirakhor. 2008. Pengantar Keuangan Islam. Jakarta : Kencana, hal. 85.

[xx] Suhendi, Hendi. 2008. Fiqh Muamalah. Cetakan Pertama, Jakarta : PT Raja Grafindo Persada 284-285.

[xxi] Mth, Asmuni. Aplikasi Musyarakah Dalam Perbankan Islam (Study Fiqh Terhadap Produk Perbankan Islam). Journal Of Islamic Law, Al-Mawarid Edisi XI Tahun 2004, hal. 30.

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